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What does free market environmentalism mean? It means applying market solutions to environmental problems.
Case in point: Charging higher admission fees to get into the national parks.
Before we get to that, let me introduce you to Terry Anderson, the executive director of a group called PERC and author of a book called Free Market Environmentalism, who got me thinking about this idea. He’s not your typical environmentalist–-a bow-hunter, he killed a lion with a bow and arrow last spring in South Africa–-but he is committed to finding practical ways to preserve the character of the west, where he grew up.
Anderson may be an iconoclast, but other environmentalists are moving his way. No, the Sierra Club is not about to promote bow-hunting. But markets, once seen only as a cause of pollution, are increasingly being embraced as a way to make the world more green.
The evidence for this is everywhere–the so-called cap-and-trade regulatory schemes being proposed to curb global warming, individual fishing quotas that limit depletion of global fisheries, the rise of organic farming, GE’s Ecomagination initiative, the greening of Wal-Mart, and so forth. The climate (pun intended) has changed dramatically since 1991 when Anderson and his co-author Donald Leal published the first edition of Free Market Environmentalism. Back then, Anderson recalls, a book reviewer wrote that “free market environmentalism” was an oxymoron and that the authors of this book were the morons.
I met Anderson at Stanford, where he teaches a class on environmental entrepreneurs in the business school, and we spent some time together last weekend at a conference in Big Sky, Montana, sponsored by PERC, the Property and Environmental Research Center, a nonprofit he leads. (Disclosure: PERC paid my expenses, as well as those of other reporters at the event.) Anderson, I was pleased to learn, is not an ideologue; he says, for example, that we need government regulation of carbon to curb global warming. Instead, he’s a pragmatist who has thought a lot about how best to address the big environmental issues facing the west, from water rights to the energy boom to wildlife restoration to the decline of our national parks.
He and his PERC colleague, Holly Fretwell, and most everyone else who has looked closely at the parks, including NPS managers, agree as currently operated, the parks are in trouble. Infrastructure is crumbling, services are declining and museum collections are gathering dust, as the National Park Conservation Assn. points out. More tax dollars would be nice, but how realistic is it to expect Congress to devote money to the parks during a time of war, rising budget deficits, a national health care crisis, etc.?
Anderson’s recommendent would use markets: Charge people more money to get into the parks, he says. Right now, it costs $25 per car per week to visit Yellowstone–less than a family of four spends to go to movie and a whole lot less than the $200 (minimum) that it costs to take four people to Disney World. This is nutty when you think about it. Consider: Only about 8% of National Park Service revenues are covered by fees. What this means is that the average American taxpayer is subsidizing the Yellowstone vacations of people who are almost surely better off, if only because they can afford to fly or drive to Montana or Wyoming for an extended vacation. That’s not even to consider the British, German and Japanese tourists we are subsidizing. Meanwhile, the parks are deteriorating.
The obvious objection to charging higher fees is that they would keep poor people out of the parks. OK, says Anderson—let’s let anyone who earns less than $30,000 a year get in free. Or give people who can’t afford the higher fees tax credits to offset their costs. Either way, it’s hard to believe that higher fees would keep many people away.
PERC’s Fretwell calculated what it would cost, per person per day, to cover all the operating expenses of a number of parks. Here are her numbers:
Mt Rushmore $1.31
Grand Canyon $4.61
Steamtown national historic site $42.39
Gates of the artic national reserve $415
You can see this isn’t a simple problem—some parks don’t get enough visitors, for whatever reason (remoteness, lack of appeal) to cover their costs with reasonable fees. But most do.
Putting the national parks on a pay-their-own-way basis would accomplish something else, too: It would align the interests of park managers and visitors. (I was going to say “customers.”) So as parks serve visitors better, more people will come, more money will come in, permitting more investment. This is known as capitalism. Right now, Congress and its notorious earmarks have too much control over park spending. One result is the infamous $1 million outhouse in Glacier National Park.
The parks will need and very much deserve government support for capital improvements and the like. They provide a public good, arguably even to those who never set foot in them—like the museum you never visit, but it’s nice to know it’s there. The bottom line, though, is that we need to think in more creative ways about environmental problems, particularly when the alternative is business as usual.
Bozeman, Montana --"I don't want to own every ranch," Ted Turner once said. "I just want to own the ranch next door."
This is the kind of thinking that has made Turner, the restless 67-year-old cable television billionaire, the largest private landowner in America. Turner, the former vice chairman of Time Warner, who left the company's board in May, owns 15 ranches in seven states, covering 1.9 million acres. That's 3,000 square miles - bigger than Delaware or Rhode Island.
A visit to one of those ranches - the 113,000-acre Flying D ranch in southwestern Montana - demonstrates that the Turner ranches stand out not only because of their size, but because of the values that drive them.You can read the the column here.
When Dean Folkvord finished high school in 1978, his father Dale bought a wheat farm near Three Forks, Montana. Their only plan was to sell wheat. Since then, they have built a company Wheat Montana,, that sells wheat, mills flour, bakes bread and operates eight casual restaurants. Their story illustrates how farmers can make a direct connection to consumers, and thereby create an alternative to conventional, commodity agriculture—which isn’t working well in much of the rural west.
The conventional agricultural model still dominates, of course. It’s based on feeding the most people, at the least cost, with commodity products, grown with lots of chemical inputs. It drives down prices paid to farmers, and it’s one reason why Montana is a poor state—45th in the nation in household income.
Folkvord, 46, has blazed a different trail. Wheat Montana, as he explains it, does more than sell wheat, flour and bread—it tells a story, and helps to forge a link between the consumer and the family farm. (A picture of his family adorns Montana Wheat’s bread and flour packages.) Most farmers, when business is good, expand “horizontally” by buying more land. By contrast, Folkvord has expanded “vertically” up the value chain, capturing a bigger share of the prices people pay for food. As a result, his company today employs about 190 people, and provides work for another 100 or so through suppliers and partners.
This past weekend, I’ve been learning a little about agriculture, mining, land use and conservation issues in the west at a conference in beautiful Big Sky, Montana, sponsored by PERC (The Property and Environment Research Center), an NGO that promotes market-based solutions to enviromental problems. Disclosure: PERC paid the expense of reporters who attended the event. More about PERC in a posting later this week.
Folkvord came upon his business model by necessity. He wasn’t making enough money as a wheat farmer in the early 1990s, and so built a bakery. “We really didn’t want to get into the bread business, but we felt it was something we had to do,” he says. The same goes for his first bakery and deli, which he opened, with trepidation, right by the farm; he and his dad figured they’d sell sandwiches to local farmers and ranchers, as well as a few travelers driving by on nearby I-90. “People showed up from Seattle and Minneapolis and they wanted expresso,” he says. “All I knew about expresso was that I didn’t like it,” he says. He ordered expresso machines from Bozeman and learned how to make lattes. “We realized, wow, there’s something going on here and all of a sudden we were in the food business,” he says.
Today, Wheat Montana has eight retail outlets—bakeries and delis—around the state, and Folkvord’s looking to expand to Washington state and eventually California. “It plugs into a trend out there in America where we might be getting tired of fast, fried food and people want foods that’s fresh and good for you,” he says. (Although the popular cinnamon rolls aren’t exactly slimming.) He sells fresh bread in five states, with wheat varieties being his big seller. Wal-Mart’s the biggest seller of his flour. And he ships wheat kernels to specialty bakeries around America, including Spring Mill Bakery near my home in Bethesda, Md.
Interestingly, Folkvord’s products are not organic. His farm gets only about 12 inches of rainfall a year, the growing season is short and it’s at an altitude of more than 5,000 feet. Half his land lays idle each year to replenish the soil, he’s got weed problems and he says it wouildn’t be practical to go organic (although other Montana farmers grow lots of organic wheat). Instead, he has his flour and bread tested by a third-party to make sure they contain no artificial chemical. and markets them as “chemical free,” GMO free and “better than organic.” Yes, there’s some pressure to go organic, but he stands behind the healthfulness of his break and says, “We’re Norwegian and bull-headed and we’re not going to change.”
Recently the Folkvord family sold a big stake in Wheat Montana to outside investors. They are looking for capital and expertise to get national distribution for their products and for the chain of deli. “The Big Sky’s the limit,” says Folkvord. Does this mean they are no longer a family farm? We could argue about the family farm but you can drive to Three Forks and see the wheat fields for yourself. Just try to find the ‘farm’ where Pepperidge Farm grows its wheat.
The slumping, stodgy newspaper industry has turned for help to one of America’s most creative, tech-savvy business thinkers, Harvard Business School prof Clayton M. Christensen. Let’s hope Christensen, an evangelist for radical change and author of the best-selling book, The Innovator’s Dilemma, can help newspapers figure out how to reinvent themselves for a digital world.
I’ve got a bias here. I spent 20 years as a newspaper reporting, beginning at the now-defunct Paterson (N.J.) News and ending at the now-defunct Knight-Ridder chain. (See the pattern?) Three papers – The Washington Post, New York Times and Wall Street Journal -- land on my driveway each morning by about 6 a.m. Reading them is one of the pleasures of my day.
To be sure, it is neither effficient nor ‘green’ to chop down trees, produce rolls of newsprint, ship them across the country, print papers with multiple sections (many of which I don’t want) and then deliver them by automobile to my suburban home, particularly when more timely and personalized news and information can be found instantly by turning on my laptop. The thing is, it’s no fun to read a computer screen over breakfast. More to the point, there would be very little news on the Internet—or on television, or the radio, or in the blogosphere—were it not for the many thousands of reporters and editors employed by newspapers.
Alas, major metropolitan dailies are in trouble, largely because their readers and advertisers are defecting to the Internet. Newspapers could have invented Yahoo and eBay and Craigslist, but they did not, and they have been slow to react to the onslaught of digital media. “We’re an incredibly insular and arrogant industry,” says Drew Davis, president of The American Press Institute, an industry group. It was the API that raised $2.5 million to hire Christensen and his consulting firm, Innosight, to apply some shock therapy to the business, as part of a project called Newspaper Next.
I heard Christensen and his colleagues describe Newspaper Next this week at an API event at Gannett Corp.’s headquarters in McLean, Va. They’ve got some good ideas—not a laundry list of changes for papers to make, but an array of concepts and processes that could help the industry rethink its purpose and learn to change, quickly.
The goal is pretty simple—to move from the industry’s current focus on a core product, the newspaper, with a few spinoffs like a website or a free arts-and-entertainment weekly, to a portfolio model that delivers solutions to people’s many information-related needs with a variety of products, services and platforms. Some papers are moving this way already. In Washington, The Post has the daily, a free weekday tab called Express, a robust website, a radio station and a bunch of suburban papers. But Christensen and his people argue that an even more dramatic overhaul is necessary.
They argue, among other things, that papers should think in terms of helping readers and non-readers with “jobs to be done” – one of their catch phrases – which can range from being able to participate in a democracy or converse about current events, to finding a good restaurant, to hiring a reliable plumber, to meeting other people who share their interest, to avoiding boredom during commutes. This way of thinking changes the traditional measure of quality at a newspaper. If the “job to be done” is to avoid boredom on a bus or train, for example, an easy-to-read tabloid with a few puzzles is actually higher quality that a broadsheet filled with long analyses on Social Security reform. If the “job to be done” is finding the best running route when visiting a new city, the print daily is useless. “The quality of a product can only be expressed relative to the job to be done,” Christensen said. On the other hand, if the “job to be done” is pondering the state of the world on a lazy Sunday morning, The Times has no peer.
Newspaper Next is testing this approach at such dailies as The Boston Globe (which is reaching out to small businesses as advertisers), The Dallas Morning News (aiming to solve the problems of busy moms) and the Bergen Record (overhauling its website to be less newsy and more of a go-to source for all kinds of local information). Indications are that newspapers need to think about compiling databases (like Zagat’s) and about aggregating the collective wisdom of its readers so they can help one another (like Angie’s List.) They have to provide platforms for communities of all kinds, and learn to get comfortable with losing control over their “published” content on the Internet. What’s more, they need to do all this cheaply, quickly and fearlessly.
Traditionalists will recoil. They shouldn’t. This hide-bound industry badly need a cultural revolution, to find new revenues to support the traditional and important work of reporters and editors. Newspapers aren’t just another business (the record industry, travel agents, boxed software) being disrupted by the Internet, for better or worse. They’re a business that matters to all of us.
In my CNNMoney.com column today, I look at the battle being waged by Greenpeace and the Natural Resources Defense Council against consumer products giant Kimberly-Clark. The environmentalists charge that K-C has failed to follow best practices in its sourcing of wood, and in particular uses wood pulp from ancient Canadian forests to make throwaway products like Kleenex and toilet tissue. The company's bigger problem may be that it misled the public and its shareholders about its practices. Here's how the column begins:
NEW YORK -- Question: When you wipe your nose with a Kleenex, are you helping wipe out ancient forests?
Answer: That depends entirely on who you ask.
The environmental groups Greenpeace and the Natural Resources Defense Council say that Kimberly-Clark, the world's largest tissue manufacturer, has failed to keep its promises to protect ancient forests in Canada. Kimberly-Clark calls itself an environmental leader. Be warned: digging through the competing claims in this controversy is not easy.
But one thing's evident: Kimberly-Clark's credibility has taken a hit, and that's a problem for the $16 billion a year consumer products firm whose brands include Kleenex, Huggies, Scott, Pull-Ups, Cottonelle, Viva, Kotex and Depend.
You can read the column here.
While there are many things not to like about Hewlett Packard’s investigation into leaks by its board of directors, I’m struck, above all, by the likelihood that the entire enterprise was utterly unnecessary. Among other things, it turns out that the so-called leaks that HP devoted time, money and management attention to were barely worth bothering with in the first place.
My belief, as I’ve written, is that the best way to avoid this kind of thing is to permit directors—and encourage lead directors or independent board chairs—to be more open with reporters. If directors are to be held accountable by shareholders, they need to be able to talk publicly about what they do. They shouldn’t talk about proprietary information, but neither do CEOs when they talk in public. Directors should be able to talk, in general terms, about how the company’s doing, how they approach their work, their oversight of the CEO, etc. Otherwise, they are being paid handsomely by owners who have no way to know whether they are doing a good job. Of course, if this were coupled with shareholder access to the proxy ballot, and competitive elections for director (i.e., true shareholder democracy), all the better.
As for HP. The article that apparently got CEO Mark Hurd and his team of snoops all lathered up ran on CNET in January. It’s pretty harmless. Reginald Brown, a lawyer at Wilmer Hale who represents George “Jay” Keyworth, the so-called leaker, sent me a copy of the CNET story along with about 30 pages of background material that demonstrates that just about everything that Keyworth told reporter Dawn Kawamoto was already on the public record. One quick example.
"Though HP’s direct sales technology is expected to undergo changes, one thing that’s not likely to happen is a merging of the HP and Compaq PC brands, the source said."
Here’s what Todd Bradley, an HP executive said a month earlier on a conference call with analysts, posted at HP’s website:
As far as, Andy, your question about Compaq and HP, we’ve done and are completing a lot of work to understand what those two brands stand for because they do stand for different things. I think, as we go forward.. you’ll see much better delineation between the two.
Then again, CNET’s Kawamoto did reveal the following about HP's January 2006 management retreat:
Those in attendance worked from early morning to late evening, with few breaks given beyond meals, said a source with the company. "By the time the lectures were done at 10 p.m., we were pooped and went to bed," the source said.
For this, HP spied on directors, reporters and its own employees. Makes you wonder not just about CEO Hurd's ethics, but about his judgment.
In my coverage of corporate citizenship, I haven’t written much about voluntarism and philanthropy. Two reasons: It’s hard to write about them without sounding mushy, and typically they aren’t core to a company’s mission or impact.
But I had the opportunity to speak yesterday at an awards luncheon sponsored by the Metro Atlanta Corporate Volunteer Council, which encourages companies to make it easy for their workers to do volunteer work. To prepare for the speech, I did some research and thinking about corporate volunteering, and then I learned more at the event, which drew a crowd of more than 500 people from Atlanta's best companies. (The top award, FYI, went to a law firm called Kilpatrick Stockton.)I’ve come away thinking that every company ought to have a program to help its people to volunteer—not just because it’s a nice thing to do, but because it makes business sense.
It’s amazing, once you dig a little, to see how much company-sponsored volunteering is going on, not just in Atlanta, where companies are famously civic-minded, but all around the country. IBM and Pfizer run great volunteer programs, focused on education and global health. In Atlanta, Home Depot will help connect more than 40,000 volunteers and 1,000 nonprofits during its current “corporate month of service.” Small companies like Georgia Natural Gas are active, too; more than two-thirds of its 65 employees regularly volunteer on company time. This is not a bad way to set your company apart, especially if you are selling a commodity like natural gas.
The business case for corporate-sponsored volunteering is straightforward. The opportunity to volunteer is an appealing benefit to employees. These efforts burnish a company's reputation in the eyes of customers. And they help over time to build strong communities, without which business cannot thrive.
I recently wrote about Michael Shuman's thought-provoking new book, The Small Mart Revolution. He's asked me to post this reply. I will respond in a comment soon. Thanks so much, Michael...Here goes:
I’m grateful to Marc Gunther for sharing with all you some of the arguments I make in The Small-Mart Revolution. When we recently met for breakfast, we agreed that it might be interesting, constructive, and fun if we continued the discussion a bit on this blog.
So, my challenge to Marc is this: When price, quality, and convenience are roughly equal, why would you ever want to buy nonlocal? Here are ten reasons that persuade me – and a growing number of Americans – to localize spending.
(1) Higher Standards – The most fundamental difference between local and nonlocal businesses is that the former stick around while the latter entertain plans for moving to Mexico or Malaysia. Consequently, any community seeking sustainability through nonlocal businesses cannot, in the final analysis, possibly do so, because those businesses are continually fighting off tougher environmental standards. A good example of this is in my backyard, Maryland. Regulation of the chicken industry has been virtually impossible because the producers, Tyson and Perdue, and continually threatening to move to environmentally “loose” jurisdictions like Arkansas and Mississippi. This same problem also afflicts economic development that seeks higher wages through nonlocal industry. Yes, they often pay better, but they often leave and take those jobs with them.
(2) Greater Wealth – Because nonlocal businesses come and go while local businesses stick around for years, often for many generations, they are much more reliable generators of wealth, income, and jobs. Around the country, economic developers have been snookered into offering millions of dollars of incentives to attract or retain nonlocal business, and by and large these deals have been huge losers. Not because these industries didn’t have great performance on paper, including the promise of high wages. But because they stayed for a couple of years, took the incentives, and then vanished. There are some 300 empty Wal-Marts for example across the country – each continuing to cause nasty environmental problems – that stand as testaments to the short-sightedness of economic developers who thought they could lure the box stores for more than a heartbeat. The comings and goings of the supposedly high quality jobs turn out to be a very poor bargain for public expenditures on economic development. According to an investigative report about the cost effectiveness of tax abatements in Lane County, Oregon, the cost to the community in lost taxes was about $23,800 per job for nonlocal firms and $2,100 per job for the local firms. The nonlocal jobs were more than ten times more expensive, because the absentee-owned firms were so unreliable. On a net jobs basis (after the big departures), nonlocal jobs were 33 times more expensive.
(3) Greater Stability – The comings and goings of large, nonlocal business create enormous stresses, especially on small community’s economy. In the Katahdin Region of Maine, where I’ve been working over the past few years, the shutdown of a paper mill, so that it could move operations to a lower-wage area, created a regional unemployment rate of 40% over the next year. That kind of economic catastrophe is far less likely in a community economy built primarily around local businesses.
(4) Greater Multipliers – There’s a growing body of evidence that local businesses contribute more to local multipliers – the most fundamental basis for community income, wealth, and jobs. A Civic Economics study in Austin, Texas, for example, found that for every $100 spent at a Borders bookstore, $13 remained in the local economy. For every $100 spent at a local bookstore, $45 remained. Roughly speaking, then, the local expenditure contributed to three times the economic benefits as the nonlocal expenditure. A dozen similar studies have been done worldwide, and they all point in the same direction.
(5) Less Vulnerability – A local economy that is more self-reliant will be more immune to global surprises totally outside its control. The obvious example right now is importation of oil, which most observers link with terrorism and economic instability and which could be eliminated through smart, cost effective development of local energy efficiency and renewable resources over the next generation. Importing food leaves you vulnerable to imported pollution, micro-organisms, and pests from less responsible farmers elsewhere in the world.
(6) Smart Growth – Local small business is a natural promoter of “smart growth” or anti-sprawl policies. Smart growth means redesigning a community so that residents can walk or ride bikes from home to school, from work to the grocery store. It means scrapping old zoning laws and promoting multiple uses—residential, commercial, clean industrial, educational, civic—in existing spaces, because it’s better to fully use the town center than to build subdivisions on green spaces on the periphery. Because local businesses tend to be small, they can fit more easily inside homes or on the ground floor of residences. Because they focus primarily on local markets, local businesses place a high premium on being easily accessible by local residents.
(7) Greater Identity – Part of what makes any community great is how well it preserves its unique culture, foods, ecology, architecture, history, music, and art. Local businesses celebrate these features, while nonlocals steamroll them with retail monocultures. Austin’s small business network employs the slogan “Keep Austin Weird.” Outsider-owned firms take what they can from local assets and move on. It’s the homegrown entrepreneurs whose time horizon extends even beyond their grandchildren and who truly care about preserving these assets. And it’s the local firms who are most inclined to serve local tastes with specific microbrews and clothing lines. “Weirdness” is what attracts tourists, engages locals in their culture, draws talented newcomers, and keeps young people hanging around.
(8) Greater Creativity – Richard Florida’s arguments about the importance of a “creative class” for economic success also tend to support locally owned businesses. Florida argues that among the key inducements for a creative class to move to and stay in a community are its civic culture, its intellectual bent, its diversity, and its sense of self—all attributes that are clearly enhanced in a local-business economy. A local-business economy seeks to celebrate its own culture, not import mass culture through boring chain restaurants and Cineplexes. It seeks to have more residents engaged as entrepreneurs and fewer as worker bees for a Honda plant. Myriad ideas and elements of a culture can best emerge through myriad homegrown enterprises.
(9) Greater Social Well Being – In 1946 two noted social scientists, C. Wright Mills and Melville Ulmer, compared communities dominated by at least one large manufacturer versus those with many small businesses. They found that small business communities “provided for their residents a considerably more balanced economic life than did big business cities” and that “the general level of civic welfare was appreciably higher.” Thomas Lyson, a professor of rural sociology at Cornell University, updated this study by looking at 226 manufacturing-dependent counties in the United States. He concluded that these communities are “vulnerable to greater inequality, lower levels of welfare, and increased rates of social disruption than localities where the economy is more diversified.”
(10) Greater Political Participation – Studies of voting behavior suggest that the longer residents live in a community, the more likely they are to vote, and that economically diverse communities have higher participation rates in local politics. Moreover, Harvard political scientist Robert Putnam has identified the long-term relationships in stable communities as facilitating the kinds of civic institutions—schools, churches, charities, fraternal leagues, business clubs—that are essential for economic success. As one group of scholars recently concluded after reviewing the social science literature: “[T]he degree to which the economic underpinnings of local communities can be stabilized—or not—will be inextricably linked with the quality of American democracy in the coming century.” An economy with many long-term homegrown businesses is more likely to contribute to such stability than the boom-and-bust economy created by place-hopping corporations.
Of course, things like price, quality, and convenience are not always equal. That’s why I embrace a philosophy of “local first,” not local at all costs. Sure, we’ll all still buy some things from chain stores – I too am drinking a Starbucks coffee right now at the Portland, Maine, airport (because of the absence of an equal local alternative here). But the experience of more than 60 communities that now have “local first” campaigns is striking. More information, more questions, more thinking almost always leads consumers to localize more of their spending. Nearly all the information we have about the supposedly great bargains of chain businesses is from their advertising, and better information about what’s available locally tends to highlight cost-effective ways to save money and go local.
As I argue in “The Small-Mart Revolution,” this is not an academic exercise. It goes to heart of preserving the communities we care about.
Best, Michael Shuman
What do gay rights, global warming and labor conditions in China have in common? They are all issues about which mainstream companies are taking a more progressive stance than the White House or Congress. In my CNN Money column today, I look at the corporate progress towards providing GLBT (gay, lesbian, bisexual and transgender) workers equality in the workplace. The column was sparked by a new report from the Human Rights Campaign, a gay rights group.
NEW YORK (Fortune) -- Most of America's best-known companies are reaching out to gay and lesbian workers, as well as gay consumers, despite the criticism they get from conservative Christian groups.
Consider: No Fortune 500 company offered health benefits to the domestic partners of gay and lesbian workers until Levi Strauss did so in 1992. Today, more than half of the Fortune 500 offer those benefits.
Beyond that, blue-chip companies recruit gay MBAs. They seek out suppliers owned by gay and lesbian business people. And they advertise in gay media such as Logo, the cable TV network launched last year by Viacom.
Read the rest of the column here.